Pour un arpent de terre (French Edition)

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See note above.

Bladder and kidney stones are aggravated, if not caused, by habitual dehydration, or sometimes by physical malformation, which makes it impossible entirely to empty the bladder, so Palissy's observation that water with a diuretic effect can be efficacious in the treatment of such conditions is broadly accurate. Here, as in many other places, Watson's translation is more informal in its idiom than Palissy's original text. Salt was mined at Wieliczka near Krakow continuously from the thirteenth century until , by which time the mine had reached a depth of more than metres, some of the tunnels being shaped into chapels and chambers, or decorated with statues, and at Bochnia, to the south-east of Krakow, from the mid-thirteenth century; the mine there, which is still operational, is now more than metres deep.

Watson's choice of phrase here has a Biblical ring; this story is not, in fact, Biblical in origin. See note below. Nitrum is a naturally-occurring mixture of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate; here it might mean simply sodium carbonate. Watson's translation here is poor, and he seems not to have grasped the meaning of the passage at all. There is a story that once a ship belonging to some traders in natural soda put in here, and that they scattered along the shore to prepare a meal. Since, however, no stones suitable for supporting their cauldrons were forthcoming, they rested them on lumps of soda from their cargo.

Platforms are plans or designs, especially either topographical plans or designs for building. Word lost in the binding. This is conjectural: Watson is again translating quite freely. Whatever Practise's protestations, most of Palissy's discussion of the hydrological cycle is drawn, directly or indirectly, from 1. The Biblical context perhaps suggested to Watson's mind the echo of Matthew, although the idiom is not uncommon.

This is most obviously an invocation of Jeremiah 5. It also recalls Job There were mills set beneath the main bridge across the Charente in Saintes at least from the fourteenth century Michaud, pp. The city's port was an important centre for the region's salt trade p. London Bridge had water wheels driving both water-pumps and corn-mills the former erected in , the latter in I cannot find a specific source for this, but there is presumably some lore behind the proverb, below. A sentinel or guard. Watson's translation here is far more colourful, and continues Palissy's military metaphor from the previous passage.

This is attributed by Pliny to the polyp i.

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Collinet [Paris, ], II. Topsell's book is closely based on the earlier work of Conrad Gesner, known throughout Europe. Santonge or Saintonge, the ancient name for the region around Saintes, in south-west France. See figure. As has been seen, much of the treatise draws on Aristotle, indirectly if not directly. For salt-making, and Palissy's evident familiarity with it, see Introduction and commentary. The area is indeed prone to fog; such conditions proved decisive in the Battle of the Ardennes in August This appears to be a paraphrase and summary of Job 37, although it more remotely recalls many other Old Testament texts for example, Psalm 50 and indeed Psalm The weight of horse-loaves as of ordinary bread was standardized, so their height must also have been broadly standardized; one assumes that they were reasonably flat.

The usual term for flat, open country, without hills and sometimes without trees ; the OED does not record its usage after the mid-nineteenth century. The arpent as a measure of land is still used on occasion in Quebec and Louisiana.

Pour un arpent de terre: Roman (Les Promesses du ciel et de la terre) (French Ed | eBay

The Roman goddess of growth and so agriculture, usually identified with Demeter, the Greek goddess of corn and in some sources with the Egyptian Isis. In vino veritas. When men bee dronken, they disclose all, as when the Wine is in, the witte is out: al superfluous banquetinges, and Riotous excesse are called Conuiuia Bacchanalia , dronken feastes. The Greek and Roman god of gardens and fertility, usually represented in sculpture as a herm four-sided column, surmounted with a bust with a grossly enlarged phallus.

The identification of Priapus with surveying and the marking of boundaries is via his conflation with Hermes, god of travellers, commonly represented as ithyphallic on the herms which marked boundaries and roads in the ancient world. The Roman god of water, specifically the sea, identified with the Greek Poseidon.

The specific connection between Neptune and navigation is less conventional than the others given in this passage. A rampart, but perhaps specifically more with the sense of rampire , a dam, and less exclusively military than the OED would suggest. This is almost the only indication in the treatise of Palissy's skill as a maker of grottoes.

Unfortunately, only fragments of his work in this sphere survive, and a sole drawing in the Destailleur Collection BNF , which has been attributed to him. The latter is an elevation of a rustic grotto and may be a study for the grotto designed for the gardens in Catherine de'Medici's new Tuileries Palace. This grotto had a brilliantly enamelled interior and was situated on an island approached via a bridge. In England, at least, the use of timber for water mains became common in the sixteenth century, because it was capable of withstanding the greater water pressure, which advances in pumping techniques could produce, more successfully than the lead or earthenware pipes that had been in use since Roman times.

The thickness of lead needed to withstand the pressure would have made the cost prohibitive; in addition, lead pipes dating from this time tend to have an ovoid section, with a natural point of weakness along the seam. In early modern London, elm was the most favoured material, as it did not decay as fast as other woods when buried, but the Romans had commonly used oak, and Pliny had recommended pine and alder By the mid-seventeenth century boring machines had been constructed for the manufacture of wooden pipes, which used augurs of various sizes to hollow out the sections of tree trunks, one end being made bell shaped to accommodate the end of the next.

The swelling of the timber when wet minimized leakage although it was still considerable , and the joins were often reinforced with an iron hoop. Wooden water mains survived in some parts of England well into the twentieth century. For an account of pipes, pumps and other aspects of water supply in early modern London in particular, see Dickinson, Water Supply , pp.

Palissy seems to describe a hybrid system, where lead pipes are reinforced by a wooden sleeve; it is, of course, not a mains system, so the distances involved are shorter and the water pressure presumably not so great or at least not continually so. Nantes, clearly familiar to Palissy, was beginning to become an important centre in the sugar trade.

Nobility and Titles in France

Sugar refining only became widespread in England in the eighteenth century, inseparable as it was from the trade in cotton and slaves; the first refinery opened in Liverpool in the s. Early sugar refining processes involved heating the raw product with water to reduce it and then clarifying the syrup with a mixture of bull's blood and beaten egg-white to remove impurities.

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, less an architect than a writer on architecture, was a military engineer and architect who worked for both Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus in the first century bc. His De architectura , in ten books, is the only work of its kind to survive from antiquity; its influence in the Renaissance was considerable.

Nantes is situated on the Loire, where the river is both wide and branching, forming several islands. As the city expanded in the middle ages to encompass these islands, more and more bridges were needed. Most were made of wood, supported by a mixture of stone and wooden piles. The construction of stone bridges did not generally begin until the mid-sixteenth century, and their piles were usually made of wood until the eighteenth. See Histoire de Nantes , ed. Paul Bois Toulouse, , pp. Lime, used in mortar and cement as well as plaster, is made by burning limestone in lime kilns; wood or charcoal is essential to this process.

Not only because these trades needed fires, but more particularly because their processes involved wood-ash. Particularize, i. This description is based upon the information given in the catalogues listed, as well as on my own observations of the microfilmed copy of the manuscript.

In the edition above, these are supplied conjecturally, by comparison with the original French text. According to Dana F. Frank Lestringant Mont-de-Marsan, , pp. This is the most recent collection of essays on Palissy, and the bibliography is very full. I am grateful to Harry Stevenson for checking my translations; any errors that remain are my own.

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Novel in French

Journal homepage. Hester Lees-Jeffries. Pages Published online: 12 Mar Original Articles. Additional information Notes 1. Recepte , pp. Recepte , p.


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The description of the garden proper begins on p. Ecclesiasticus 1. Wisdom 3.

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See the commentary below, notes , The earl's interests and library are discussed in the biographical note above. Words in parentheses in the English column clarify the definition. Feminine or masculine meanings of French words are indicated by f. In some genealogical sources, numbers are written out. This is especially true with dates. The following list gives the cardinal 1, 2, 3 and the ordinal 1st, 2nd, 3rd versions of each number.