North and South [with Biographical Introduction]
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Leaving from Cadiz, Spain, the team sailed along the western coast of Africa, then across the Atlantic Ocean for about twenty four days. They landed in the South American country of Guiana. Vespucci cruised south and explored the coast of modern day Brazil. Ojeda and de la Cosa headed west, exploring the coast of modern day Venezuela.
Vespucci charted the stars and constellations of the southern hemisphere. He noticed that they were different from the constellations usually visible in Europe. They recorded the plants and wildlife they saw. They also encountered several native tribes along the way. On the island of Curacao, Vespucci told of natives that appeared to be giants. But they were unsuccessful because the male natives fought them off. The voyage returned to Spain in June of Vespucci wrote a detailed letter to his friend Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici describing his trip, the natives, and geography of the places he had visited.
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He also first describes a very large river that we today know as the Amazon River. One tribe he encountered were nude men and women who were cannibals. By May , Vespucci was on another voyage, this time for the Portuguese kingdom. He once more noted the different constellations not visible in Europe.
When they did not find any of the riches said to be found in India, the fleet headed home for Portugal. Based on his knowledge of maps, Vespucci was beginning to believe, unlike Columbus, that they were not in India. By the end of this journey, he had sailed farther south than previous explorers. He wrote in another letter to Lorenzo Medici that the land they discovered was not an island, but a continent. The king asked Vespucci to sail again in , still hoping to find a route to India. The fleet left May 10, under captain Gonzalo Coelho.
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They sailed to and stopped at different islands off the New World coast. Along they way, they saw a variety of wildlife and met some more native people. They reached Lisbon in June Later Years and Death Amerigo Vespucci was confident that the southern hemisphere he explored was neither Asia nor India. Amerigo Vespucci spent the last of his years fulfilling the role as Pilot-Major of Spain.
He oversaw the training and licensing of Spanish pilots. While Vespucci continued to call the lands Mundus Novus , the name America stuck and entered into everyday use in European circles. Weakened by repeated bouts with malaria, Vespucci died in Seville in February Legacy Amerigo Vespucci is remembered for several important reasons. He explored the mouth of the Amazon River.
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He also developed a method for determining longitude. She was called to testify to Presbyterian Church leaders about her beliefs which resulted in expulsion from the church. As women, Sarah and Angelina were sheltered and limited in both thought and action in their South Carolina culture, but joining the Society of Friends also limited their interaction with their contemporary world. It seems more probable that the sisters would have known of African American activist Maria W. Stewart, the first American woman to speak publicly against slavery in , whose work was published by William Lloyd Garrison.
In Philadelphia, Angelina taught classes at the school that her widowed sister Anna Frost had started in order to supplement her small income. Although she was impressed and excited by the opportunities she saw at Hartford, the Quaker elders would not give her permission to move there.
Instead she settled into Philadelphia Quaker life, teaching at the infant school. After reading about the struggles of the abolitionists, she wrote a moving letter to Garrison, which was published without her permission in his abolitionist journal, The Liberator. This letter catapulted Angelina into the public realm, and was followed in by her Appeal to the Christian Women of the Southern States. The Appeal was written in a personal tone, addressing Southern women as friends and colleagues.
In , Angelina and Sarah moved to New York against the advice and without the permission of the Philadelphia Quakers to begin work as agents for the abolitionist cause. Within weeks of the training, they began offering public talks for female anti-slavery meetings in New York.
In their talks they advocated practical ways that Northerners could influence slavery regulations, but also urged their audiences to locate and root out race prejudice in their own lives and communities. According to their analysis, race prejudice in the North and the South was a major support of the slave system. They understood this from their own experience with slaves and free blacks in the North, as well as through discussions with one of their mentors, the leading abolitionist Theodore Dwight Weld. They helped organize the New York Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women which strengthened their bonds with other women activists in the anti-slavery cause and in began touring Northern cities, giving talks to packed audiences.
Their work was very successful and led to the creation of more female anti-slavery associations and thousands of signatures on anti-slavery petitions. However, in every city they visited, the fact that they were women speaking before a mixed male and female audience created an uproar, even among abolitionist sympathizers. Many religious leaders hotly rejected the idea that women should speak from pulpits and public stages. In her essay Beecher advocated gradualism instead of immediate emancipation, and also called women to remember their subordinate role in society.
Angelina responded in the summer of , publishing Letters to Catherine Beecher, defending immediate emancipation of slaves, as well as the right and responsibility of women to participate as citizens in their society. During this same period, Sarah also began writing Letters on the Equality of the Sexes. Their speaking tour ended in late with Angelina very ill and both sisters exhausted from their grueling traveling and lecturing schedule.
Instead of withdrawing from the public stage, Angelina and Sarah went on to achieve even more notoriety when, in , Angelina testified at a Committee of the Legislature of the State of Massachusetts, becoming the first American woman to testify in a legislative meeting. They continued to write and work to support abolitionist causes. Weld and both of the sisters withdrew from active participation for a short time; when Theodore resumed his activist work in , Angelina and Sarah were overwhelmed with caring for the young children and maintaining the farm.
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In , Weld and the two sisters established a co-educational boarding school out of their home, with Angelina teaching history and Sarah teaching French. Although friends and family sent their children there two sons of Elizabeth Cady Stanton attended the school was a struggle, and made very little money. Angelina and Sarah both taught and assisted with administration. The school continued when the Union failed two years later, with Angelina and Sarah as teachers.
In the family moved to Boston to continue their teaching careers.
As late as they were both vice presidents of the Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Association, and symbolically cast ballots in a local election. In , Angelina and Sarah discovered that their brother Henry had fathered children by his female slave, Nancy Weston. When Angelina and Sarah found out about these three young men, they established close relationships, and supported Archibald and Francis through college and graduate school. Both men went on to national leadership among the Black communities.
Catherine Birney, a former student at their boarding school, published a full biography of the sisters in According to historian Gerda Lerner b, 22 Sarah had read Locke, Jefferson, and other Enlightenment thinkers, and her writing consistently integrates these Enlightenment ideals with Biblical analysis. It is written in the style of the apostolic letters in the New Testament, and as such seems odd to modern ears. In , Angelina published her first work, the Appeal to the Christian Women of the South , written in the form of a letter to close friends.
Her claim for the equality of slaves is also based on natural rights as well as God-given rights.